Class 1 - Introduction and Fundamentals
Class 2 - Fundamentals and listening
Class 3 - Medieval Music I
Class 4 - Medieval Music II
Class 5 - Renaissance Music I
Class 6 - Renaissance Music II
Class 7 - Early Opera
Class 8 - Baroque Music I
Class 9 - Baroque Music II
Class 10 - Classical Music I
Class 11 - Classical Music II
Class 12 - Classical Music III
Wednesday September 6th: Introduction
PDF Link: Copland, How We Listen to Music (read and prepare to discuss this article for class 2)
Considering the three modes of listening outlined by Copland, how might the following examples be appreciated? Is some music more effective in one mode than another? Let's listen to some short examples...
Philippe de Vitry, In Arboris (1320)
J.S. Bach, Brandeberg Concerto No. 5, I - Allegro (1721)
Mozart, The Magic Flute, Papageno Aria (1791)
Schoenberg, Pierrot Lunaire, I - "Mondestrunken" (1912)
Stravinsky, The Rite of Spring (1913)
Alice Coltrane, My Favorite Things (1972)
Kate Soper, Only the Words Themselves Mean What They Say (2011)
Luis Fonsi & Daddy Yankee Featuring Justin Bieber, Despacito (2017)
How do we discuss music? How can we use words to describe what a piece of music expresses?
Beethoven, 7th symphony, second movement, Allegretto (1882):
"Mozart et les fontions harmoniques" and animated video for Mozart's Piano Sonata No. 16 "sonata facile" (1788)
Monday September 11th - Class 2 - Fundamentals
Reflections on the Copland: How We Listen to Music article
What makes a masterpiece? Are artists lionized in their own lifetime or does canonization and the idea of a masterpiece happen over larger periods of time?
Who makes music in the Western Classical tradition? Who is the author?
Key words ad concepts for discussing music:
Melody - A sequence of musical notes, often, but not always, singable.
Harmony - Notes played together, often, but not always in concord.
Chord - Three or more notes sounding at once.
Orchestration - How the musical material is performed; what instruments play and how they play.
Timbre (or tone color) - The quality of a sound, the sound of a musical instrument.
Rhythm - The arrangement of sounds over time.
Tempo - The speed of pulsation underlying music, usually expressed in beats per minute.
Meter - An hierarchical rhythmic structure, usually a repeated pattern of strong and weak beats.
Form - Overall architecture or plan for a piece of music. Usually how a piece of music is divided into sections.
Phrase - A short section of music with a sense of completion.
Key (Major and Minor) - An online course to identify major and minor tonalities (optional)
Wednesay September 13th - Class 3 - Medieval Music I
The beginnings of western music notation:
Below is a recording by Alekos Karavitis, a Cretan musician of traditional folk music. Some of the phrasing and ornamentation that we hear in folk musics could provide insight into interpreting ancient music notation.
Early Neume Notation
Notice the similarities and differences between these two score examples. Do the groupings of notes (neumes) look the same in both? How many horizontal lines are there per system and what might this imply about the notation? What information is not seen in either example that might be expected in a modern score? What aspects of performance might be left "unsaid" in a musical score?
Notation was originally an aid to memory, but over time became more and more specific, allowing musicians to read and learn music that they never heard. The unification of the church during the Carolingian Renaissance (9th century), and most notably under the rule of Charlemagne, saw a surge in cultural and artistic development. During this era there was a push towards standardization in all practices of the church, which created a demand for music notation so that the same mass could be realized in any location where Christianity was practiced. Music notation was also thought of as being more advanced and efficient in teaching music than oral transmission. However, this does not mean that the oral tradition disappeared, only that music making was streamlined via a common practice regarding the interpreting musical scores.
Article for extra info (optional): From Neumes to Notes - The Evolution of Music Notation
Plainchant is a monophonic music in a free meter. This means that all voices sing in unison without a clear rhythmic pattern. Plainchant is sometimes referred to as plainsong or Gregorian chant, and these terms may be used interchangeably. This music is religious, used in the Christian liturgies of the Western Church with origins from antiphonal singing that was practiced in the Christian places of worship in Syria and Egypt dating back to the 4th century. The predecessor to plainchant would be a kind of incantation or heightened speech used when delivering religious texts to elevate the importance of the words and their meaning.
Anonymous: Kyrie IV (Mass for Easter Sunday) (before 1000)
The Kyrie would be sung after the Introit section of a mass. The Kyrie contains three short lines:
Kyrie Eleison (Lord have mercy)
Christe Eleison (Christ have mercy)
Kyrie Eleison (Lord have mercy)
The Kyrie contains long melodic passages where the vowel does not change, which are known as a melismas.
St. Augustine: Confessions, Book 10, CHAPTER 33 (c.400)
"I used to be much more fascinated by the pleasures of sound than the pleasures of smell. I was enthralled by them, but you broke my bonds and set me free. I admit that I still find some enjoyment in the music of hymns, which are alive with your praises, when I hear them sung by well-trained melodious voices. But I do not enjoy it so much that I cannot tear myself away. I can leave it when I wish. But if I am not to turn a deaf ear to music, which is the setting for the words which give it life, I must allow it a position of some honor in my heart, and I find it difficult to assign it to its proper place. For sometimes I feel that I treat it with more honor than it deserves. I realize that when they are sung these sacred words stir my mind to greater religious fervor and kindle in me a more ardent form of piety than they would if they were not sung; and I also know that there are particular modes in song and the voice, corresponding to my various emotions and able to stimulate them because of some mysterious relationship between the two. But I ought not to allow my mind to be paralysed by the gratification of my senses, which often leads it astray. For the senses are not content to take second place. Simply because I allow them their due, as adjuncts to reason, they attempt to take precedence and forge ahead of it, with the result that I sometimes sin in this way but am not aware of it until later.
Sometimes, too, from over-anxiety to avoid this particular trap I make the mistake of being too strict. When this happens, I have no wish but to exclude from my ears, and from the ears of the Church as well, all the melody of those lovely chants to which the Psalms of David are habitually sung; and it seems safer to me to follow the precepts which I remember often having heard ascribed to Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, who used to oblige the lectors to recite the psalms with such slight modulation of the voice that they seemed to be speaking rather than chanting. But when I remember the tears that I shed on hearing the songs of the Church in the early days, soon after I had recovered my faith, and when I realize that nowadays it is not the singing that moves me but the meaning of the words when they are sung in a clear voice to the most appropriate tune, I again acknowledge the great value of this practice. So I waver between the danger that lies in gratifying the senses and the benefits which, as I know from experience, can accrue from singing. Without committing myself to an irrevocable opinion, I am inclined to approve of the custom of singing in church, in order that by indulging the ears weaker spirits may be inspired with feelings of devotion. Yet when I find the singing itself more moving than the truth which it conveys, I confess that this is a grievous sin, and at those times I would prefer not to hear the singer."
Hildegard von Bingen (saint Hildegard) (1098-1179)
Hildegard von Bingen was a German benedictine abbess and polymath. She is notable as a composer, philosopher, linguist, medicinal writer, biologist, and is considered to be the founder of natural history in Germany. She was also a mystic, claiming her discoveries and writings were divined from God. She describes receiving visions from a very young age in her autobiographical work, Vita.
As an abbess, she consistently fought for more freedom and independence for her and her fellow nuns. Saint Hildegard's claim that her writings were visions may have allowed her to overcome the patriarchal hierarchy of the church and have a say in matters that would typically not be allowed to a woman. she claimed that she was an unlearned woman and incapable of the discoveries that were divined to her, which also allowed her to more openly criticize church corruption and practices, making calls for reform as she toured Europe speaking to both clergy and laity. This does not mean she was allowed to speak completely freely and without consequence or universally accepted as a visionary.
Listen to the first four minutes from each of the scenes at a minimum and be prepared to discuss your impression of this work.
Hildegard Von Bingen, Ordo Virtutum (c.1151)
Ordo Virtutum is considered to be the first Christian morality play and is the only surviving musical drama from the medieval period. The music and story originate from one of Hildegard von Bingin's visions and tells the allegory of a soul (anima) struggling between the virtues and the devil.
Do the technical limitation of monophony limit the music in some way in terms of musical interest or expressiveness? How might this music relate to mystical or religious experience?
In Ordo Virtutum, the personified virtues sing, while the devil is only able to shout. What does this tell us about the nature of music and how it was understood in terms of Christianity?
Article for extra info (optional): The Hidden Scheme of the Virtues...
Monday September 18th, Class 4 - Medieval Music II
Early Polyphony: Leonin (c1150-12??) and Perotin (c1200-12??)
The preeminent composers of early polyphony and ars antiqua (c1170-1310). These two composers are the only two names composers of the Notre Dame school, a group of composers working at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, an important center of scholarship and cultural innovation at the time. Their names were passed down by a student and music theorist known as "Anonymous IV," who mentions these two composers in their notes.
The Notre Dame school are known for two important innovations. The first is the early form of polyphony, where multiple voices sing independent melodic lines simultaneously. The second innovation relates to the notation of rhythm, where these composers used a form of notation developed by Franco of Cologne that allows for more precise rhythmic notation.
This early polyphonic music is known as organum, which included a plainsong part would be sung at a slow speed, with newly composed voices added to the original melody. These early composers and music theorists made strict rules to control how this polyphony was constructed to create a harmonious and consonant relationship between all voices. The earliest examples of organum simply had a second voice singing the same chant melody at a parallel interval with the original and eventually the second voice was allowed to move in contrary motion or at a different speed or with an independent rhythm
Léonin, Viderunt Omnes (c.1160)
Viderunt omnes fines terrae
salutare Dei nostri:
Jubilate Deo omnes terra.
Notum fecit dominus salutare suum:
ante consectum gentium
revelavit justitiam suam.
All the ends of the earth have seen
the salvation of our God:
Sing joyfully to God, all the earth.
The Lord has made known his salvation.
In the sight of the nations
He has revealed His righteousness.
Pérotin, Alleluia Nativitas (c.1200)
Alleluia Nativitas gloriose virginis Marie
ex semine Abrahe orta de tribu Juda
clara ex stripe David.
O glorious nativity of the Virgin Mary,
born of the seed of Abraham of the tribe of shining Judea,
out of the stock of David
Compare and contrast these two musical examples. What are the differences and similarities? Can you hear the number of independent voices in each of these examples?
How do these musical examples compare to the monophonic plainchant from the previous class? Is it easier or more difficult to understand the words? Does the polyphonic music feel like a development of the monophonic music?
Wednesday September 20th, Class 5 - Early Renaissance (1300-1500)
Read this excerpt from Listen (p.60), which introduces the Ars Nova Era:
"After 1300 the technical development of polyphony reached new heights of sophistication. Composers and music theorists of the time began to speak of an ars nova, a “new art” or “new technique.” ... the organum of the Notre Dame composers, now many years old, was regarded as “ancient art,” ars antiqua.
Some historians have compared the fourteenth century with the twentieth, for it was a time of the breakup of traditions — an age of anxiety, corruption, and worse. Bubonic plague, the “Black Death,” carried away an estimated 75 million people, at a time when the papacy had been thrown out of Rome and two rival popes claimed the allegiance of European Christendom.
Polyphonic music grew increasingly secular, intricate, and even convoluted, as did the painting, architecture, and poetry of the time. Motets reflected such intricacy in a structural technique they employed called isorhythm. Here rhythmic patterns many notes long were repeated over and over — isorhythm means equal rhythm — but with different pitches each time. This went along with other schematic and numerical procedures, meant for the mind rather than the ear. Mathematics was also making great strides in this period.
The leading composers, Philippe de Vitry (1291–1361) and Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300 –1377), were both churchmen — Vitry ended his life as a bishop — but they were political churchmen serving the courts of France and Luxembourg. Machaut was also the greatest French poet of his time, admired (and imitated) by his younger English contemporary, Geoffrey Chaucer."
Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361), In Arboris (1320)
An example of a secular isorhythmic motet, In Arboris presents a level of rhythmic and polyphonic complexity that is beyond what we've heard from the early Notre Dame composers of the Ars Antiqua era. De Vitry is attributed with the development of the isorhythmic technique, where independent patterns of notes (color) and rhythm (talea) repeat in non-coincidental combinations, creating a self-similar but non-repeating structure. For example, imaging a melody with four pitches, like the opening of Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, then imagine these four notes repeating with a long-short-short rhythmic pattern, resulting in a larger-scale repetition every twelve notes (4 pitches by 3 rhythmic durations). Even with these small numbers, there is already an interesting effect; the motets of this era that use the isorhythmic technique are often much more complicated than a simple 4 over 3 pattern.
De Vitry is also known for his music theory treatise Ars Nova, where he lays the foundations for modern rhythmic notation and meter. While the basic ideas of this treatise are still in practice today, De Vitry and his contemporaries used red or black ink to signify if the notes should have a 2 or 3 notes in a beat duration.
Guillaume de Machaut La messe de Nostre Dame, Kyrie (1365) - Listen to the first twenty minutes
Guillaume de Machaut's Mass for Notre Dame is notable as the first complete mass written by a single composer. Up to the point, the mass would be pieced together without any necessary connection between the different sections. This mass marks the first instance of a composer conceiving of the Ordinary Mass as a coherent large-form composition.
This Kyrie uses a cantus firmus, which is a melody taken from the another composition (often plainchant) that is then used as the basis of the polyphonic vocal writing. In the case of this mass, it is very difficult to hear the cantus firmus as it is deeply embedded in the musical texture. The method of building a composition around a pre-existent melody is a continuation of the organum tradition we heard from Leonin and Perotin last class.
Like the motet of Philippe de Vitry, this Kyrie is isorhythmic.
Machaut's Secular Chanson: Dame, de qui toute ma joie vient (before 1342) - Vocal Version
Instrumental accompaniment version:
Guillaume Dufay, Ave Maria Stella (homorhythmic motet)
Monday September 25th, Class 6 - The High Renaissance (1500-1600)
Josquin Ave Maria
Josquin Desprez (1450-1521) is considered to be the first master of the high renaissance. Josquin was born in northern France, travelling to Italy in his early life. Josquin's patrons included Pope Alexander VI, the notorious Sforza family of Milan, the Estes of Ferrara, Louis XII of France.
From Listen (p71):
"An amazingly imaginative composer, Josquin brought the fiffteenth-century Mass to a brilliant climax and pioneered whole new expressive genres, such as the sixteenth-century chanson and motet. He was famous both for his technical prowess and for his expressive innovations — for the prayerful serenity of his motet “Ave Maria” as well as the grief-stricken accents of “Planxit autem David,” a setting of King David’s lament for his dead son Absalom."
The two pieces of music for today's class mark the height of the renaissance madrigal, a secular polyphonic form that is known for a high degree of chromaticism and inventive use of word painting (madrigalisms).
Luca Marenzio (1554-1599), Solo e pensoso i piú deserti campi (1599)
Luca Marenzio sets the poem Solo e Pensoso I Piu Deserti Campi by the 14th century Italian poet, Petrarch. This work comes from a book of madrigals, Il Nono Libro de Madrigali, which is the final collection of madrigals from Marenzio and represents his most complex and mature work.
Follow the text as you listen to the music and consider how the text, in terms of both the meaning of the words as well as the overall form of the poem, may have influenced the music. How does Marenzio treat words like "alone" or "life, or "love" in his music.
Solo et pensoso i piú deserti campi
vo mesurando a passi tardi et lenti,
et gli occhi porto per fuggire intenti
ove vestigio human l'arena stampi.
Altro schermo non trovo che mi scampi
dal manifesto accorger de le genti,
perché negli atti d'alegrezza spenti
di fuor si legge com'io dentro avampi:
sí ch'io mi credo omai che monti et piagge
et fiumi et selve sappian di che tempre
sia la mia vita, ch'è celata altrui.
Ma pur sí aspre vie né sí selvagge
cercar non so ch'Amor non venga sempre
ragionando con meco, et io co llui.
Alone and thoughtful, through the most desolate fields,
I go measuring out slow, hesitant paces,
and keep my eyes intent on fleeing
any place where human footsteps mark the sand.
I find no other defence to protect me
from other people's open notice,
since in my aspect, whose joy is quenched,
they see from outside how I flame within.
So now I believe that mountains and river-banks
and rivers and forests know the quality
of my life, hidden from others.
Yet I find there is no path so wild or harsh
that love will not always come there
speaking with me, and I with him.
Go back and listen to the first minute of this madrigal for a second time - what is happening with the highest voice? What might this voice represent?
An excellent live performance by Exaudi can be found here:
Carlos Gesualdo (1566-1613), Moro lasso al mio duolo (1611)
Carlo Gesualdo di Venosa is the composer to have taken the renaissance polyphonic style to its furthest extreme in terms of complexity and chromaticism. The music of Gesualdo is often considered to be disturbed and dark in character, an observation reinforced by his biography: Gesualdo suffered from possible mental illness and violent tendencies that culminated in the murder of his wife and her lover after catching the two lovers in the act. It could be argued that Gesualdo was consumed by guilt from this murder and his music became a conduit for his tortured mental state.
Moro lasso al mio duolo is written from the perspective of a lover dying of grief and longing. The music contains rapidly shifting moods and musical textures. The opening line is homophonic, where all voices move together in rhythmic unison. After this first line of text, the music shifts to a more energetic section where the different voices move rapidly and independently from one another.
Listen to this music while following the text. How does the music coincide with the text? Are the words and their meaning somehow conveyed musically? Are there any similarities and differences between this madrigal and the one by Marenzio?
Moro, lasso, al mio duolo,
E chi può darmi vita,
Ahi, che m’ancide e non vuol darmi aita!
O dolorosa sorte,
Chi dar vita mi può,
Ahi, mi dà morte!
I die, alas, in my suffering
And she who could give me life,
Alas, kills me and will not help me.
O sorrowful fate,
She who could give me life,
Alas, gives me death.
Go back and isten to the harmonies in the opening section of this piece - do they sound anything like the music we have heard up to this point?
Gesualdo was known to have experimented with microtonal tunings for his music. There is some evidence that his music should be performed in 31-tones per octave as opposed to the usual 12-tones per octave that we have on the piano. At the time Gesualdo was working, the modern way of tuning instruments was not yet widespread, and there were many people experimenting with different ways to tune a keyboard instrument all over Europe. Gesualdo's contemporary, Vicentino, invented the 31-tone per octave system that Gesualdo favored, which can be heard in this recording.
Wednesday September 27th, class 7 - Early Opera
Late Renaissance and Early Baroque
The Florentine Camerata
Under the patronage of Count Giovanni de Bardi, the Florentine Camerata were a group of humanists, poets, scholars, and musicians who convened to discuss art, music, and drama. Their ideas would lead to the invention of opera as we know it, built upon the drive to recreate ancient Greek drama, a form that had been lost for many centuries. The theories of the Florentine Camerata brought the development of monody, which focuses on the recitative style, a declamatory way of singing that approximates the patterns of human speech. While some early experimental works would be limited to monody and the recitative style throughout the entire opera, composers soon opted to move towards greater musical variation. The recitative sections were therefore contrasted with sung sections, known as arias, as well as choral and instrumental passages.
This shift towards a single vocal line marks a path away from the heights of polyphonic complexity found in the motets and madrigals we've studied in class and towards simplicity, with an emphasis on a clear and understandable setting of the text. After all, the goal was to revive the ancient Greek musical drama, to tell a story that is heightened by music.
Members of the Florentine Camerata included the Giulio Caccini, Pietro Strozzi, and Vincenzo Galilei (the father of astronomer Galileo Galilei), and Claudio Monteverdi.
Claudio Monteverdi's Orfeo
This opera features a libretto by Alessandro Striggio based upon the Greek myth of Orpheus. With the supernatural musical skills of Orpheus, this legend makes an attractive choice for opera. Orfeo is in five acts and contains instrumental sections, recitative, arias, and choruses. For the libretto, Striggio draws mainly upon the Virgil and Ovid versions of the Orpheus myth. The only great divergence from the original myth occurs at the ending, where in this version Apollo descends from the heavens and invites Orpheus to join him in eternal life, an excellent example of the use of "Deus Ex Machina," imposing an happy ending.
Please read this summary of the Orpheus Myth if you are not already familiar.
Orfeo is notable as the first opera that is still widely performed today. This opera was premiered in 1607 at the court of Mantua. Monteverdi's goal was to recreate the ideals of ancient Greek musical drama, to give priority to the expression of feelings and the portrayal of passions through the marriage of music and words.
Although this opera is in five acts, the original intention was to have no break between acts and the music be performed continuously.
A complete libretto with english translation can be found here (optional).
Listen to the five sections provided below and identify what marks the different sections as recitative, aria, chorus, or instrumental. Why would certain parts be in one style and not another? Does this music remind you of anything you've come across outside of the course (musicals, opera, albums, etc.)?
Act I: In Questo Lieto I Fortunato Giorno (recitative)
In questo lieto e fortunato giorno,
Ch’ha posto fine à gli amorosi affanni
Del nostro Semideo, cantiam Pastori,
In sì soavi accenti,
Che sian degni d’ORFEO nostri concenti.
Oggi fatt’è pietosa
L’alma già si sdegnosa
De la bella EURIDICE.
Oggi fatt’è felice
ORFEO nel sen di lei, per cui già tanto
Per queste selve hà sospirato, e pianto.
Dunque in si lieto e fortunato giorno
Ch’ha posto fine a gli amorosi affanni
Del nostro Semideo, cantiam Pastori,
In si soavi accenti,
Che sian degni d’ORFEO nostri concenti
On this happy and auspicious day
Which ends the amorous torments
Of our Demigod, let us sing, Shepherds,
With sweet accents,
May our singing be worthy of ORFEO.
Today has made merciful
The formerly disdainful soul
Of fair EURIDICE.
Today has made happy
ORFEO in the bosom of her for whom he once
Sighed and wept throughout these woods.
Thus on such a happy and auspicious day
Which ends the amorous torments
Of our Demigod, let us sing, Shepherds,
With sweet accents,
May our singing be worthy of ORFEO.
- translation by Gilbert Blin
Recitative sections were only notated in a limited, or short-hand form for the instruments. The musicians would only have the chord changes with the bass note and would be expected to improvise their parts with this information. Listen to how these particular performers realize this accompaniment. Does it sound improvised in some way? How do you think it was possible to work in this way and have predictable results?
From Act II: Tu Se' Morta (aria)
Tu se’ morta, mia vita, ed io respiro?
Tu se’ da me partita
Per mai più non tornare, ed io rimango?
No, che se i versi alcuna cosa ponno,
N’andrò sicuro a’ più profondi abissi,
E, intenerito il cor del Ré de l’ombre,
Meco trarrotti a riveder le stelle:
O, se ciò negherammi empio destino,
Rimarrò teco in compagnia di morte.
A dio, terra, à dio Cielo, e Sole à dio.
You are dead, my life, and I still breathe?
You are gone from me
Never to return, and I should remain?
No, for if verses can do anything,
I will go in safety to the deepest abysses,
And having softened the heart of the King of shades,
I will bring you back with me to see the stars again: Oh, if wicked destiny refuses me this,
I will stay with you, in the company of death.
Farewell earth, farewell Heaven and Sun, farewell.
- translation by Gilbert Blin
Listen closely to the vocal line - how does this compare to the vocal writing and text setting of the madrigals and chanson we've heard thus far? Is it more expressive somehow? Are the words easily understandable? Does the accompaniment have a clear relationship with the voice?
From Act III: Nulla Impresa Per Huom (instrumental and chorus)
Coro di Spiriti InfernaliCoro di Spiriti Infernali
Nulla impresa per uom si tenta invano
Nè contr’ a lui più sa natura armarse.
Ei de l’instabil piano
Arò gli ondosi campi, e ’l seme sparse Di sue fatiche, ond’ aurea messe accolse.
Quinci, perchè memoria
Vivesse di sua gloria,
La fama a dir di lui sua lingua sciolse,
Ch’ei pose freno al mar con fragil legno
Che sprezzò d’Austro e d’Aquilon lo sdegno.
Chorus of Infernal Spirits
No undertaking by man is attempted in vain,
Nor against him can Nature further arm herself.
And of the unstable plains
He has ploughed the wavy fields, and scattered the seeds
Of his labors, whence he has gathered golden harvests.
Thus, as memory
Might live of his glory,
Fame, to speak of him, has loosened her tongue,
He who restrained the sea while in a fragile barque,
Who disdained the wrath of the South and North Winds.
- translation by Gilbert Blin
In the instrumental section what instruments do you hear and what are their roles? How does the orchestration change when the chorus enters?
From Act IV: O Dolcissimi Lumi (mixed styles)
O dolcissimi lumi io pur vi veggio, Io pur: ma quale Eclissi ohimè v’oscura?
Rott’ hai la legge, e se’ di grazia indegno
Ahi vista troppo dolce e troppo amara:
Così per troppo amor dunque mi perdi?
Ed io misera perdo
Il poter più godere
E di luce e di vita, e perdo insieme
Tè d’ogni ben più caro, o mio Consorte.
Torna a l’ombre di morte,
Infelice EURIDICE, Ne più sperar di riveder le Stelle,
Ch’ormai fia sordo a’ prieghi tuoi l’Inferno.
Dove te’n vai, mia vita? ecco, io ti seguo,
Ma chi me ’l niega, ohime: sogno o vaneggio?
Qual occulto poter da questi orrori,
Da questi amati orrori
Mal mio grado mi tragge e mi conduce
A l’odiosa luce?
- translation by Gilbert Blin
O sweetest eyes, I see you now,
I see: But what Eclipse, alas, obscures you?
You have broken the law, and are unworthy of grace.
Ah, too sweet and too bitter a vision:
So, through too much love, then, do you lose me?
And I, wretched, lose
The power to enjoy more
Light and life, and with them lose
You, dearer than all, O my Consort.
Return to the shades of death,
Unfortunate EURIDICE, Nor can you hope to see again the Stars,
For from this moment Hades is deaf to your prayers.
Where are you going, my life? Lo, I follow you—
But, who stops me, alas: do I dream or rave?
What hidden power of these horrors,
Draws me from these beloved horrors
Against my will, and conducts me
To the hateful light?
What effect does this section, with a good deal of text in a recitative style, have? Is it closer to something like musical theater than a typical opera passage?
The opera ends with a final chorus, a setting of the biblical moral from the Book of Common Prayer: "He who sows in tears shall reap the fruit of grace".
From Act V: Vanne, Orfeo, Felice a pieno (chorus)
Vanne, ORFEO, felice apieno
A goder celeste honore
L’ave ben non mai vien meno.
L’ave mai non fu dolore,
Mentr’altari, incensi e voti
Noi t’offriam lieti e devoti.
Così va chi non s’arretra
Al chiamar di lume eterno,
Così grazia in ciel impetra
Ahi qua giù provò l’inferno
E chi semina fra doglie
D’ogni grazia il frutto coglie.
Go, ORFEO, happy at last,
To enjoy celestial honor
Where good never lessens,
Where there was never grief,
While altars, incenses and prayers
We offer to you, happy and devoted.
So goes one who does not retreat
At the call of the eternal light,
So he obtains grace in heaven
Who down here has braved Hell
And he who sows in sorrow
Reaps the fruit of all grace.
- translation by Gilbert Blin
The opera ends with this celebratory music. Listen to the form of this music, the alternation between the chorus and the orchestra. What texture is Monteverdi using in the chorus?
A complete modern performance of Orfeo (watch the opening 10 minutes):
Monday October 2nd, Class 8 - Baroque Music I (1600-1750)
Baroque Instrumental Music
Up to this point in the course we have been listening almost exclusively to vocal music, and with the connection to the hegemony of the church and the emphasis on music being a vessel for the meaning of the sung text, instrumental music in the medieval and renaissance eras was not as important as vocal music, or at least not as well preserved. In the baroque era, however, instrumental music began to be taken much more seriously and a wide range of instrumental musical forms arose. This may also relate to technology and the greater availability of high quality instruments like the harpsichord and the family of bowed stringed instruments that we still use today.
An introduction to J.S. Bach (1865-1750) from Listen (p.224)
"During the Baroque era, crafts were handed down in family clans, and in music the Bach clan was one of the biggest, providing the region of Thuringia in central Germany with musicians for many generations. Most of the Bachs were lowly town musicians or Lutheran church organists; only a few of them gained court positions. Johann Sebastian, who was himself taught by several of
his relatives, trained four sons who became leading composers of the next generation. Before he was twenty, Bach took his first position as a church organist in a little town called Arnstadt, then moved to a bigger town called Mühlhausen. Then he worked
his way up to a court position with the Duke of Weimar. As a church organist, Bach had to compose organ music and sacred choral pieces, and at Weimar he was still required to write church music for the ducal chapel as well as sonatas and concertos for performance in the palace. The way his Weimar position terminated tells us something about the working conditions of court musicians. When Bach tried to leave Weimar for another court, Cöthen, the duke balked and threw him in jail for several weeks before letting him go. At Cöthen the prince happened to be a keen amateur musician who was not in favor of elaborate church music, so Bach concentrated on instrumental music
In 1723 Bach was appointed cantor of St. Thomas’s Church in Leipzig, a center of Lutheran church music in Germany. He had to not only compose and perform but also organize music for all four churches in town. Teaching in the choir school was another of his responsibilities. Almost every week in his first years at Leipzig, Bach composed, had copied, rehearsed, and performed a new cantata — a religious work for soloists, choir, and orchestra containing several movements and lasting from fi fteen to thirty minutes. Bach chafed under bureaucratic restrictions and political decisions by town and church authorities. The truth is, he was never appreciated in Leipzig. Furthermore, at the end of his life he was regarded as old-fashioned by modern musicians, and one critic pained Bach by saying so in print. Indeed, after Bach’s death his music was neglected by the musical public at large, though it was admired by composers such as Mozart and Beethoven.
Bach had twenty children — seven with his first wife (a cousin) and thirteen with his second (a singer), for whom he prepared a little home-music anthology, The Note-Book of Anna Magdalena Bach. The children were taught music as a matter of course, and also taught how to copy music; the performance parts of many of the weekly cantatas that Bach composed are written in their hands. From his musical response to the sacred words of these cantatas and from other works, it is clear that Bach thought deeply about religious matters. Works such as his Passions and his Mass in B Minor emanate a spirituality that many listeners find unmatched by any other composer.
Bach seldom traveled, except to consult on organ construction contracts (for which the fee was often a cord of wood or a barrel of wine). Blind in his last years, he continued to compose by dictation. He had already begun to assemble his compositions in orderly sets: organ chorale preludes, organ fugues, preludes and fugues for harpsichord.
He also clearly set out to produce works that would summarize his final thoughts about Baroque forms and genres; such works are the Mass in B Minor, the thirty-three Goldberg Variations for harpsichord, and The Art of Fugue, an exemplary collection of fugues all on the same subject, left unfinished at his death. Bach was writing for himself, for his small devoted circle of students, perhaps for posterity.
It is a concept that would have greatly surprised the craftsmen musicians who were his forebears."
J.S. Bach, Prelude and Fugue No. 1 in C Major (1722)
The first part of this recording is a prelude, featuring continuous arpeggios of a harmonic progression. Traditionally, the prelude could be used as a way to warm up on, or even tune in the case of something like a lute, the instrument.
The second portion is a fugue, a composition form that grew out of imitative polyphony with strict guidelines regarding how the contrapuntal lines may interact. The part of the fugue that repeats at different notes and timings is called a "subject". The fugue is considered to be one of the most complex forms of musical composition and J.S. Bach took this form to extreme degrees and was greatly interested in the compositional challenges it put forward. Towards the end of his life,Bach worked on a set of pieces entitled The Art of the Fugue, which aimed at exploring the depths of the fugal form.
How do the prelude and fugue differ in terms of either musical or experiential qualities? Are any of the harmonic changes in the prelude surprising to you? In the fugue, are you able to pick out the four entries of the subject?
J.S. Bach, Brandenberg Concerrto No. 5 (1721)
In the baroque era composers began writing suites, a set of pieces or movements that would cohere together into a unified whole. Composers conceived of these pieces as all being part of a larger work, where contrasting tempos, keys, and styles would be taken into account to create connections on a larger scale. For example, many suites were in three movements that would be in a fast-slow-fast structure.
Bach composed his six Brandenburg concertos in 1721 for the purposes of seeking patronage from the Margrave of Brandenburg, although unsuccessfully as the court did not have the required musicians to perform the scores, which were left unperformed for some time. Indeed, most of these concertos were not performed during Bach's lifetime. Despite this disappointing initial reception, these concerti and now considered to be among the finest works from the Baroque era.
All six concerti are in the form of concerto grosso, where a collection of instruments share solo roles accompanied by an ensemble. The solo group is known as the concertino while the orchestra is known as the ripieno. When all the instruments play together, concertino and ripieno alike, this is known as a tutti section.
The first movement begins bombastically, with a focus on the harpsichord as soloist. This movement is in ritornello form, with the solo harpsichord playing episodic material between the tutti ritornello sections. At roughly two-thirds through the first movement there is a lengthy harpischord cadenza. This is the first piece to use the harpsichord in a solo capacity.
A slow movement is once again in ritornello form.
The third movement is in a fast tempo and in the form of a da capo aria, a ternary (ABA) form. While the da capo form is normally a vocal form, in this case the soloists take the role of the voice.
To provide an idea of the physicality of the instrumental ensemble, please have a look at this video of the Freiburger Barockorchester. They perform this work using period instruments and it's amazing to see the virtuosic performance of the solo harpsichord part.
Wednesday October 4th, Class 9 - Baroque Music II
The Oratorio - George Frederic Handel's Messiah (1741)
From Listen, page 145-146:
"Georg Friedrich Händel — he anglicized his name to George Frideric Handel after settling in England — was one of the few composers of early days who did not come from a family of musicians. His father was a barbersurgeon and a valet at a court near Leipzig. He disapproved of music, and the boy is said to have studied music secretly at night, by candlelight. In deference to his father’s wishes,
Handel studied law for a year at Halle, one of Germany’s major universities, before finally joining the orchestra at Hamburg, Germany’s leading center of opera. From then on, it was an exciting, glamorous life. Still in his teens, Handel fought a duel with another Hamburg musician about which of them was to get top billing. In 1706 he journeyed to the homeland of opera and scored big successes in Venice, Florence, and Rome.
Though he became a court musician for the elector of Hanover, in northern Germany, he kept requesting (and extending) leaves to pursue his career in London, a city that was then beginning to rival Paris as the world capital. Here Handel continued to produce Italian operas, again with great success. He also wrote a ﬂattering birthday ode for Queen Anne and some big pieces to celebrate a major peace treaty; for this he was awarded an annuity. In 1717, after the elector of Hanover had become George I of England, Handel got back into his good graces by composing music to be played in a royal celebration on barges on the River Thames. This famous Water Music consists of two suites for the Baroque festive orchestra.
As an opera composer, Handel had learned to gauge the taste of the public and also to ﬂatter singers, writing music for them that showed off their voices to the best advantage. He now became an opera impresario — today we would call him a promoter — recruiting singers and negotiating their contracts, planning whole seasons of opera, and all the while composing the main attractions himself: an opera every year, on average, in the 1720s and 1730s. He also had to deal with backers — English aristocrats and wealthy merchants who supported his opera companies and persuaded their friends to take out subscriptions for boxes.
Handel made and lost several fortunes, but he always landed on his feet, even when Italian opera went out of style in Britain, for he never lost a feel for his audience. After opera had failed, he popularized oratorios — retellings of Bible stories (mostly from the Old Testament) in a half operatic, half choral form. Opera audiences had always been ready to identify opera’s virtuous Roman emperors with local princes. Now they were delighted to identify oratorio’s virtuous People of Israel with the British nation.
Handel was a big, vigorous man, hot-tempered but quick to forgive, humorous and resourceful. When a particularly temperamental prima donna had a tantrum, he calmed her down by threatening to throw her out the window. At the end of his life he became blind — the same surgeon operated (unsuccessfully) on both him and Bach — but he continued to play the organ brilliantly and composed by dictating to a secretary.
Handel’s oratorio, Messiah, his most famous work, is also one of the most famous in the whole of Western music. It is the only composition of its time that has been performed continuously — and frequently — since its first appearance. Today it is sung at Christmas and Easter in hundreds of churches around the world, as well as at symphony concerts and “Messiah sings,” where people get together just to sing along with the Hallelujah Chorus and the other well-known choral numbers, and listen to the well-loved arias. Unlike most oratorios, Messiah does not have actual characters depicting a biblical story in recitative and arias, although its text is taken from the Bible.
In a more typical Handel oratorio, such as Samson, for example, Samson sings an aria about his blindness and argues with Delilah in recitative, while choruses represent the People of Israel and the Philistines. Instead, Messiah works with a group of anonymous narrators, relating episodes from the life of Jesus in recitative. The narration is interrupted by anonymous commentators
who react to each of the episodes by singing recitatives and arias. All this is rather like an opera in concert form; but in addition, the chorus has a large and varied role to play. On one occasion, it sings the words of a group of angels that actually speaks in the Bible.
Sometimes it comments on the story, like the soloists. And often the choristers raise their voices to praise the Lord in Handel’s uniquely magnificent manner. The first two numbers in Messiah we examine cover the favorite Christmas story in which an angel announces Christ’s birth to the shepherds in the felds. Included are a recitative in four brief sections and a chorus."
For unto us a child is born (chorus)
For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given, and the government shall be upon His shoulder; and His name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty God, the Everlasting Father, the Prince of Peace.
There were shephards (recitative)
There were shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flocks by night.
Glory be to go (chorus)
Glory to God in the highest, and peace on earth, good will towards men.
Behold the Lamb of God (chorus)
Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world.
He was despised (air)
He was despised and rejected of men, a man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. (Isaiah 53: 3)
He gave His back to the smiters, and His cheeks to them that plucked off His hair: He hid not His face from shame and spitting.
He was despised. . . da capo (Isaiah 53: 6)
Hallelujah: for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth. (Revelation 19: 6)
The kingdom of this world is become the kingdom of our Lord,
and of His Christ; and He shall reign for ever and ever. (Revelation 11: 15)
King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. (Revelation 19: 16)
I know that my redeemer liveth (air)
I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He shall stand
at the latter day upon the earth.
And though worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God.
(Job 19: 25-26)
For now is Christ risen from the dead, the first fruits of them that sleep.
(I Corinthians 15: 20)
Worthy is the Lamb (chorus)
Worthy is the Lamb that was slain, and hath redeemed us to God by His blood, to receive power, and riches, and wisdom,
and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing.
Blessing and honour, glory and power, be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever.
A complete performance video of Handel's Messiah:
Monday October 9th, Class 10 - Classical Music I (1750-1800)
Joseph Haydn and a general introduction to the classical era
18th century Vienna
The enlightenment saw an increased level of education among the common people and a general diminishing of power in the clergy, and this liberal atmosphere, combined with colonial wealth, allowed for a flourishing in culture and the arts. Vienna was an important center during this era, ideally situated in Europe both politically and geographically. Vienna attracted the three most important figures of the classical era of music: Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), Wolfgang Mozart (1756-1791), and Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827).
Emperor Joseph II, who reigned in Austria briefly from 1780-1790 supported the free press and was an avid patron for the arts. During this time, with a populated of roughly 150 000 people, Vienna supported over 300 newspapers or journals. It was during and around these years that Joseph Haydn worked for the Esterhazy family of the nearby estate of Eisenstadt and became known as one of the greatest living composers. The two other composers from the classical era that we will look at also came to Vienna around this time: Mozart moved to Vienna from Salzberg in 1781 and Beethoven in 1792 from Bonn, Germany.
The enlightenment era brought about the emergence of an educated middle class and with this came the amateur musician, the public concert, and a greater desire for culture as entertainment. The invention of the modern novel, opera, and symphony all occur around this time, and as Europe pushed towards rights, freedoms, and democracy, the patronage system of the courts made way for a concert-going public. Furthermore, pianos or other keyboard instruments became part of many households and with this came a demand for parlor music and simpler pieces written for amateurs.
This class will focus on two works by Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), an important figure from the classical period and a teacher to both Mozart and Beethoven. While he is often overshadowed by these two students of his, Haydn is considered the father of the symphony and the string quartet. Haydn was experimental in his approach, always pushing the boundaries of musical form. This experimentation may have only been possible because he worked under the patronage of the Esterhazy family in a remote area of Austria for the greater part of his life with an orchestra of talented musicians at his disposal.
The two works that we are listening to this class are substantial in length, but please listen to them in their entirety so that you can develop a sense of their large-scale form.
Haydn, String Quartet no. 30, Op. 33, No. 2 (1781)
The first movement is in sonata form. Sonata form is an elaborated ABA structure with an exposition, development, and recapitulation.
0:00 - The exposition opens the piece
1:17 - The exposition repeats
2:32 - Development begins
3:30 - A "false recap"
3:40 - Recapitulation begins
4:10 - Haydn delays the end of the movement with a coda
The second movement is a scherzo (in 3 time, like a minuet but generally quicker). The movement has an ABA large-scale form.
The third movement is in a slow tempo in a contrasting minor key. Like the first movement, this slow movement is in sonata form.
This string quartet is known as "The Joke" quartet because of the humorous play with audience expectations in the fourth and final movement. There are several false endings, making it unclear if the music has concluded or if the players will go on. The form of this movement is a rondo, where the theme returns again and again. The rondo form was very popular at the time Haydn composed this work, and he may have been poking fun at the predictability of the form. As a court composer, Haydn wrote an incredible amount of music; perhaps experimenting with musical form was a way for him to maintain his interest (or sanity).
The rondo form is very similar to the ritornello form we saw in the Baroque period with the Brandenberg Concerto No. 5 by J.S. Bach. The difference between the two forms is subtle: the refrain in a ritornello may be in different keys and only return to the tonic (home) key for the final refrain, whereas the rondo form refrains are always in the tonic key. In other words, the refrain in a rondo will sound the same each time it comes back.
How does this piece create contrast both in terms of the music we've heard from the Baroque era as well as the sense of musical drama that is created within the piece?
Orchestral music and the symphony orchestra
The symphony took on an important role in the second half of the 18th century. While the orchestra was not a new invention of the classical era, the formation of instruments became more standardized and the basic form of a modern orchestra was now in place. The classical orchestra was more flexible an versatile than in the Baroque era, and it was also the grandest and loudest ensemble of the era and would continue to be until the invention of the loudspeaker.
violin I, violin II, violas, cellos, basses
harpsichord or organ
Festive Baroque Orchestra:
violin I, violin II, violas, cellos, basses
2 oboes, 1 bassoon, 3 trumpets, 2 timpani
harpsichord or organ
violin I, violin II, violas, cellos, basses
2 flutes. 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons
2 french horns, 2 trumpets
Continuing with the Baroque tradition, works in the Classical period are comprised of several movements with complementary tempi, forms, and key areas. The symphony as a large-scale, multi-movement form consisted of a four-movement scheme:
- First movement: fast or moderate tempo, sonata form with or without introduction.
- Second movement: slow movement, can be in a variety of forms such as sonata, theme and variations, rondo, or others.
- Third movement: in 3 time, a minuet or scherzo with a moderate tempo.
- Fourth movement: the finale, a fast or very fast tempo, in sonata or rondo form.
Haydn, Symphony No. 104 (1795)
Haydn's last Symphony is known as the "London" symphony, as it was the last in a series of twelve symphonies written for English audiences.
The first movement of the symphony is again in Sonata form. The first movement leads off with a slow introduction in the tonic minor key.
0:00 - Slow introduction in minor key
2:03 - Exposition begins
3:52 - Exposition repeats, with a more elaborate ending
5:35 - Development
6:45 - Recapitulation
7:45 - Coda
The slow second movement is in sonata form.
Following the traditional scheme, the third movement is a minuet and trio.
Haydn concludes the symphony on a powerful and jubilant note with a finale in a quick tempo, again in sonata form.
Wednesday October 11th, Class 11 - Classical Music II
There will be a quiz today!
The Enlightenment ideal of “pleasing variety” was a secondary issue when it came to Classical melody. Rather the demand was for plainness, for relief from the complex, richly ornamented lines of the Baroque period. When people at the time demanded “natural” melodies, what they meant were tunes: uncomplicated, singable melodies with clear phrases (and not too many of them),
melodies with easily grasped parallelisms and balances.
In their move toward melodic simplicity, composers of the Classical period moved much closer to popular music, even folk music, than their Baroque predecessors had done. There is a definite popular lilt in Haydn’s music that people have traced to the Croatian folk melodies he heard as a child. Short tunes — or, more often, attractive little phrases that sound as though they might easily grow into tunes — are heard again and again in Classical symphonies and quartets. Tunes are not the only melodic material to be heard in these
works, as we will see in a moment. Nevertheless, by comparison with a Baroque concerto, a Classical symphony leaves listeners with a good deal more to hum or whistle as they leave the concert.
Indeed, entire tunes were often worked into larger compositions. For example, variation form (theme and variations) grew popular both for separate pieces improvised by virtuosos and for movements in multimovement genres. Haydn wrote variations on the Austrian national anthem (he also wrote the tune), and Mozart wrote variations on “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star,” in its original French version, “Ah vous dirai-je, maman” (“Oh mama, I must tell you”). Occasionally, popular songs were even introduced into symphonies. There is a contemporary opera tune in Mozart’s “Jupiter” Symphony, the last he composed, and one of his greatest."
Mozart, Symphony No. 40 (1788)
Among a small number of Mozart's symphonies written in a minor key, the 40th symphony has been described as “a work of passion, violence and grief” by Charles Rosen and "a symphony of pain and lamentation" by biographer Otto Jahn. This symphony is one of Mozart's last compositions and is known as "the great" symphony. In some ways it marks a look forward to the focus on personal expression to come in the romantic era.
The first movement begins with the accompanimental figure before the first theme enters. Mozart marks the opening thee at a quiet dynamic, which is unusual for the period. The first movement is in sonata form.
0:00 - exposition and first theme
0:48 - B theme begins in relative major key
1:45 - Exposition repeats
3:30 - Development begins
4:40 - Recapitulation (something is different now)
5:40 - B theme, now in the minor key
6:30 - Coda
The second movement is slow and lyrical, also in sonata form.
The Minuet and trio is unusually brash and intense, removed from the courtly minuets of the Baroque and early classical works.
On the fourth movement from the Kennedy Center program notes:
"In the finale we find some of the fiercest, most fiery writing Mozart ever composed. As in the first movement, the drama derives from the endlessly fascinating ways in which melodic fragments are tossed about, from how the music ventures through remote harmonic regions with almost reckless abandon, and from the constant sharp contrasts of loud and soft, of full and sparse instrumentation, and of stable and unstable harmony. "But for all the anguish Mozart still feels and expresses," writes musicologist Michael Steinberg, "and even though it is in this movement that he brings his language closest to the breaking point, the finale must at the last be a force that stabilizes, sets solid ground under our feet, seeks to close the wounds, and brings the voyager safely-if bruised-into port."
Mozart, The Magic Flute (1791)
Listen/watch the first thirty minutes of the opera:
Monday October 16th, Class 12 - Classical Music III
Beethoven, Symphony No , the "Eroica" (1804)
The Eroica (heroic) Symphony represents the beginning of Beethoven's middle period, pushing forward with a new penchant for meaning and expression in music and away from the classical tradition of Haydn and early Mozart.
Originally, this Symphony was written with a dedication to Napoleon Bonaparte, whom Beethoven believed was heralding in an age of democracy. After Napoleon betrayed this cause and crowned himself emperor, Beethoven removed the dedication; the crossing and tearing out of Napoleon's name from the front page of the score is testimony to the emotional temperament that Beethoven was known for.
The first movement, Allegro Con Brio, is in sonata form. Listen for the theme played by the cellos after the introductory chords.
The second movement, Marcia Funebre – Adagio assai, is a funeral march in ternary (ABA) form that is elaborated in a way to make it also give the impression of a rondo, where the principal theme of the funeral march returns several times.
The third movement, Allegro Vivace, is a rapid scherzo and trio.
The fourth and final movement is in the form of a theme and variations.